Six archaeological sites investigated in advance of gravel extraction in the London Borough of Havering, between 1963 and 1997, form the basis of a landscape history of the locality. Significant monuments include an Early Neolithic ring ditch. The Bronze Age and Iron Age were periods of woodland clearance followed by intensive landscape utilization and settlement. Two fortified enclosures date from the period of the Roman conquest. A number of Roman farmsteads were occupied until the late 4th century; some of these sites were also inhabited during the Early Saxon period. Significant medieval remains included a farmstead and a manorial enclosure.
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